Tuesday, August 10, 2010
"El mundo está en la encrucijada de la crísis más seria de toda la história moderna. Los Estados Unidos se han embarcado en una aventura militar, 'una larga guerra', que amenaza el fúturo de la humanidad"
El mismo día 9 de Agosto que Fidel Castro le declaró a los periodistas venezolanos "SOY OPTIMISTA RESPECTO A OBAMA", apareció un artículo de Chossudovsky en "Global Research" dónde ese "optimismo" quedaba totalmente eclípsado bajo el científico análisis de tal artículo, y por la sencilla razón de que ésta mortal encrucijada en la que se encuentra la Humanidad no depende de los desesos y la voluntad de un sólo hombre --Obama--, sino que es el inevitable y necrófilo corolario dialéctico-estructural de un régimen --también en encrucijada mortal-- dónde los intereses de la propiedad privada --de una pléyade Gangsters-- ya no se pueden seguir manteniendo por encima de de los intereses de la propiedad colectiva racional de la entera Humanidad, y, como consecuencia, la única salida que le queda a esa pléyade de Gangsters, en el summum de la Locura a la que ha llegado la Dictadura del Capital, es el amenazarnos con su cruz gamada que implíca esa PREEMPTIVE NUCLEAR DOCTRINE bajo la que han colocado, no solamente a Iran, sino a la entera Humanidad.
Tal demencia nunca había sido vista con anterioridad en toda la historia universal. Es por ello que el ser "optimista respecto a Obama", tratar de "persuadirlo" de que no cometa ningúna barbaridad (cuando, precisamente, los mejores negocios del capital se hacen cometiendo barbaridades), es, exáctamante, lo mismo que si a Caperucita Roja le díera por "persuadir" al Lobo Feroz para que no se la comíera...aunque, en éste caso, claro está, ni "la miel ni el queso" que Caperucita trae en su cestita para la abuelita, ni toda la ecuanimidad preventiva de los mejores y buenos deseos del mundo, convencerían al Lobo de no comerse a la niña del cuento, porque, en realidad, esa "persuasión" de la que habla Fidel es, sencillamente, otro cuento con el que ya, hoy en día, nadie se puede dormir en éstas coordenadas dónde una Ferrea Dictadura de unas cientos de corporaciones de Lobos controlan la entera existencia humana sobre el Planeta. Es por eso, obviamente, que esa "persuasión" tiene que ser reemplazada, y, URGENTEMENTE, por una lucha sin cuartel contra un régimen que, como dijo Herbert Marcuse, ya no es cuestión de cíclicas "crísis económicas y políticas", sino de una total "catástrofe de la esencia humana" que, a toda prisa, necesita y demanda una Lucha Frontal y Sin Cuartel en todos los frentes posibles contra éste IV Reich del capitalismo internacional que, de continuar así, nos llevará a todos al matadero.
Para nosotros, Fidel Castro, con todo el tremendo respeto y admiración que le profesamos y que siempre le seguíremos profesando, ha pasado a ser (contra su propia voluntad y perínclitos deseos que siguen intáctos en su honradez y dignidad), y debido a su siempre incuestionable trayectoría dentro de Cuba dónde el factor de incriticabilidad y sobrevivencia estatal -por medio siglo- no han tenído más remedio que dejar sus obvias y desgastadoras huellas en él, un ícono fácilmente absorvible por los múltiples estómagos del omnipresente rumiante de la dictadura del capitalismo internacional que a todo lo 'adverso' se lo come, lo mastica y lo digíere con sus experimentados ácidos gástricos para sacarle los nutrientes que le benefician y desechar lo inservible, y el Fidel de hoy en día, al igual que el Che Guevara de los 'T shirts', es ya folklore y santoral viviente del templo de los souvenirs históricos de los tenderetes y mercados de la Gangstercracia actúal...Si, sus 'Reflexiones', sus apotegmas, sus razonamientos, sus análisis y sus hermenéuticas, leídas en todo el mundo, siguen siendo exponentes de su gran mente, pero inoperativas en el plano estratégico de la tremenda y encarnizada lucha de clases del presente escenario dónde lo que nos hace falta no es un 'homo sapiens' reflexivo, sino un Espartaco...Un Espartaco de antiguas Sierras Maestras. Un Maestro de Sierras, de atalayas, desde dónde se levante en las masas el fuego a la insurrección, el estímulo directo a una lucha frontal y sin cuartel contra un sistema necrófilo y destructivo donde, como decia Marx en sus 'Manuscritos', "el trabajador --el ser humano-- queda rebajado a mercancía, a la más miserable de todas las mercancías, pués la miseria --y enajenación-- del obrero está en razón inversa de la potencia y magnitud de su producción...el trabajador --el ser humano-- es más pobre cuanto mas riqueza produce...y se convierte en una mercancía tanto más barata cuanto más mercancías produce".
Y todos, en un mundo que sólo piensa en poser 'mercancías' de coches, teléfonos, computadoras, televisiones, máquinas y cacharos, incluso Fidel, parece que nos hemos olvidado de ello. Y todos, cada vez más y más, nos estamos convirtiendo, a la velocidad de la luz, en "mercancías cada vez más baratas", más Alienadas...hasta tal punto que ni podemos percibir ya nuestra propia enajenación, esa que nos impide ver lo que realmente está pasando.
Targeting Iran: Is the US Administration Planning a Nuclear Holocaust?
by Michel Chossudovsky
Global Research, August 9, 2010
"The US and its allies are preparing to launch a nuclear war directed against Iran with devastating consequences.
This military adventure in the real sense of the word threatens the future of humanity.
While one can conceptualize the loss of life and destruction resulting from present-day wars including Iraq and Afghanistan, it is impossible to fully comprehend the devastation which might result from a Third World War, using "new technologies" and advanced weapons, until it occurs and becomes a reality.
The international community has endorsed nuclear war in the name of World Peace. "Making the World safer" is the justification for launching a military operation which could potentially result in a nuclear holocaust.
But nuclear holocausts are not front page news! In the words of Mordechai Vanunu: "the Israeli government is preparing to use nuclear weapons in its next war with the Islamic world. Here where I live, people often talk of the Holocaust. But each and every nuclear bomb is a Holocaust in itself. It can kill, devastate cities, destroy entire peoples" (See interview with Mordechai Vanunu, December 2005).
Realities are turned upside down. In a twisted logic, a "humanitarian war" using tactical nuclear weapons, which according to "expert scientific opinion" are "harmless to the surrounding civilian population" is upheld as a means to protecting Israel and the Western World from a nuclear attack.
America's mini-nukes with an explosive capacity of up to six times a Hiroshima bomb are upheld by authoritative scientific opinion as a humanitarian bomb, whereas Iran's nonexistent nuclear weapons are branded as an indisputable threat to global security.
When a US sponsored nuclear war become an "instrument of peace", condoned and accepted by the World's institutions and the highest authority, including the United Nations, there is no turning back: human society has indelibly been precipitated headlong onto the path of self-destruction.
The following article first published in February 2006 under the title Is the Bush Administration Planning a Nuclear Holocaust? Will the US launch "Mini-nukes" against Iran in Retaliation for Tehran's "Non-compliance"? documents in detail America's doctrine of preemptive nuclear war, including war plans directed against Iran. What is important to underscore is that five years ago, these war preparations were already in an advanced stage of readiness.
The operational procedures for launching a nuclear war under the umbrella of US Strategic Command are examined.
We are at a dangerous crossroads: The rules and guidelines governing the use nuclear weapons have been "liberalized" (i.e. "deregulated" in relation to those prevailing during the Cold War era). The new doctrine states that Command, Control, and Coordination (CCC) regarding the use of nuclear weapons should be "flexible", allowing geographic combat commanders to decide if and when to use of nuclear weapons: "Geographic combat commanders would be in charge of Theater Nuclear Operations (TNO), with a mandate not only to implement but also to formulate command decisions pertaining to nuclear weapons." ( Doctrine for Joint Nuclear Operations Doctrine )
We have reached a critical turning point in our history. It is absolutely essential that people accross the land, nationally and internationally, understand the gravity of the present situation and act forcefully against their governments to reverse the tide of war.
Michel Chossudovsky, August 9, 2010
"We have discovered the most terrible bomb in the history of the world. It may be the fire destruction prophesied in the Euphrates Valley Era, after Noah and his fabulous Ark.... This weapon is to be used against Japan ... [We] will use it so that military objectives and soldiers and sailors are the target and not women and children. Even if the Japs are savages, ruthless, merciless and fanatic, we as the leader of the world for the common welfare cannot drop that terrible bomb on the old capital or the new. ... The target will be a purely military one... It seems to be the most terrible thing ever discovered, but it can be made the most useful."
(President Harry S. Truman, Diary, July 25, 1945)
"The World will note that the first atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima a military base. That was because we wished in this first attack to avoid, insofar as possible, the killing of civilians.." (President Harry S. Truman in a radio speech to the Nation, August 9, 1945).
[Note: the first atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945; the Second on Nagasaki, on August 9, on the same day as Truman's radio speech to the Nation]
(Listen to Excerpt of his speech, Hiroshima audio video)
At no point since the first atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima on August 6th, 1945, has humanity been closer to the unthinkable, a nuclear holocaust which could potentially spread, in terms of radioactive fallout, over a large part of the Middle East.
All the safeguards of the Cold War era, which categorized the nuclear bomb as "a weapon of last resort" have been scrapped. "Offensive" military actions using nuclear warheads are now described as acts of "self-defense".
The distinction between tactical nuclear weapons and the conventional battlefield arsenal has been blurred. America's new nuclear doctrine is based on "a mix of strike capabilities". The latter, which specifically applies to the Pentagon's planned aerial bombing of Iran, envisages the use of nukes in combination with conventional weapons.
As in the case of the first atomic bomb, which in the words of President Harry Truman "was dropped on Hiroshima, a military base", today's "mini-nukes" are heralded as "safe for the surrounding civilian population".
Known in official Washington, as "Joint Publication 3-12", the new nuclear doctrine (Doctrine for Joint Nuclear Operations , (DJNO) (March 2005)) calls for "integrating conventional and nuclear attacks" under a unified and "integrated" Command and Control (C2).
It largely describes war planning as a management decision-making process, where military and strategic objectives are to be achieved, through a mix of instruments, with little concern for the resulting loss of human life.
Military planning focuses on "the most efficient use of force" , -i.e. an optimal arrangement of different weapons systems to achieve stated military goals. In this context, nuclear and conventional weapons are considered to be "part of the tool box", from which military commanders can pick and choose the instruments that they require in accordance with "evolving circumstances" in the war theater. (None of these weapons in the Pentagon's "tool box", including conventional bunker buster bombs, cluster bombs, mini-nukes, chemical and biological weapons are described as "weapons of mass destruction" when used by the United States of America and its coalition partners).
The stated objective is to:
"ensure the most efficient use of force and provide US leaders with a broader range of [nuclear and conventional] strike options to address immediate contingencies. Integration of conventional and nuclear forces is therefore crucial to the success of any comprehensive strategy. This integration will ensure optimal targeting, minimal collateral damage, and reduce the probability of escalation." (Doctrine for Joint Nuclear Operations p. JP 3-12-13)
The new nuclear doctrine turns concepts and realities upside down. It not only denies the devastating impacts of nuclear weapons, it states, in no uncertain terms, that nuclear weapons are "safe" and their use in the battlefield will ensure "minimal collateral damage and reduce the probability of escalation". The issue of radioactive fallout is barely acknowledged with regard to tactical nuclear weapons. These various guiding principles which describe nukes as "safe for civilians" constitute a consensus within the military, which is then fed into the military manuals, providing relevant "green light" criteria to geographical commanders in the war theater.
"Defensive" and "Offensive" Actions
While the 2001 Nuclear Posture Review sets the stage for the preemptive use of nuclear weapons in the Middle East, specifically against Iran (see also the main PNAC document Rebuilding America`s Defenses, Strategy, Forces and Resources for a New Century )
The Doctrine for Joint Nuclear Operations goes one step further in blurring the distinction between "defensive" and "offensive" military actions:
"The new triad offers a mix of strategic offensive and defensive capabilities that includes nuclear and non-nuclear strike capabilities, active and passive defenses, and a robust research, development, and industrial infrastructure to develop, build, and maintain offensive forces and defensive systems ..." (Ibid) (key concepts indicated in added italics)
The new nuclear doctrine, however, goes beyond preemptive acts of "self-defense", it calls for "anticipatory action" using nuclear weapons against a "rogue enemy" which allegedly plans to develop WMD at some undefined future date:
"Responsible security planning requires preparation for threats that are possible, though perhaps unlikely today. The lessons of military history remain clear: unpredictable, irrational conflicts occur. Military forces must prepare to counter weapons and capabilities that exist or will exist in the near term even if no immediate likely scenarios for war are at hand. To maximize deterrence of WMD use, it is essential US forces prepare to use nuclear weapons effectively and that US forces are determined to employ nuclear weapons if necessary to prevent or retaliate against WMD use." (Ibid, p. III-1, italics added)
Nukes would serve to prevent a non-existent WMD program (e.g. Iran) prior to its development. This twisted formulation goes far beyond the premises of the 2001 Nuclear Posture Review and NPSD 17. which state that the US can retaliate with nuclear weapons if attacked with WMD:
"The United States will make clear that it reserves the right to respond with overwhelming force – including potentially nuclear weapons – to the use of [weapons of mass destruction] against the United States, our forces abroad, and friends and allies." ... (NSPD 17)
"Integration" of Nuclear and Conventional Weapons Plans
The Doctrine for Joint Nuclear Operations outlines the procedures governing the use of nuclear weapons and the nature of the relationship between nuclear and conventional war operations.
The DJNO states that the:
"use of nuclear weapons within a [war] theater requires that nuclear and conventional plans be integrated to the greatest extent possible"
(DJNO, p 47 italics added, italics added, For further details see Michel Chossudovsky, Nuclear War against Iran, Jan 2006 )
The implications of this "integration" are far-reaching because once the decision is taken by the Commander in Chief, namely the President of the United States, to launch a joint conventional-nuclear military operation, there is a risk that tactical nuclear weapons could be used without requesting subsequent presidential approval. In this regard, execution procedures under the jurisdiction of the theater commanders pertaining to nuclear weapons are described as "flexible and allow for changes in the situation":
"Geographic combatant commanders are responsible for defining theater objectives and developing nuclear plans required to support those objectives, including selecting targets. When tasked, CDRUSSTRATCOM, as a supporting combatant commander, provides detailed planning support to meet theater planning requirements. All theater nuclear option planning follows prescribed Joint Operation Planning and Execution System procedures to formulate and implement an effective response within the timeframe permitted by the crisis..
Since options do not exist for every scenario, combatant commanders must have a capability to perform crisis action planning and execute those plans. Crisis action planning provides the capability to develop new options, or modify existing options, when current limited or major response options are inappropriate.
...Command, control, and coordination must be flexible enough to allow the geographic combatant commander to strike time-sensitive targets such as mobile missile launch platforms." Doctrine for Joint Nuclear Operations Doctrine (italics added)
Theater Nuclear Operations (TNO)
While presidential approval is formally required to launch a nuclear war, geographic combat commanders would be in charge of Theater Nuclear Operations (TNO), with a mandate not only to implement but also to formulate command decisions pertaining to nuclear weapons. ( Doctrine for Joint Nuclear Operations Doctrine )
We are no longer dealing with "the risk" associated with "an accidental or inadvertent nuclear launch" as outlined by former Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara , but with a military decision-making process which provides military commanders, from the Commander in Chief down to the geographical commanders with discretionary powers to use tactical nuclear weapons.
Moreover, because these "smaller" tactical nuclear weapons have been "reclassified" by the Pentagon as "safe for the surrounding civilian population", thereby "minimizing the risk of collateral damage", there are no overriding built-in restrictions which prevent their use. (See Michel Chossudovsky, The Dangers of a Middle East Nuclear War , Global Research, February 2006) .
Once a decision to launch a military operation is taken (e.g. aerial strikes on Iran), theater commanders have a degree of latitude. What this signifies in practice is once the presidential decision is taken, USSTRATCOM in liaison with theater commanders can decide on the targeting and type of weaponry to be used. Stockpiled tactical nuclear weapons are now considered to be an integral part of the battlefield arsenal. In other words, nukes have become "part of the tool box", used in conventional war theaters.
Planned Aerial Attacks on Iran
An operational plan to wage aerial attacks on Iran has been in "a state of readiness" since June 2005. Essential military hardware to wage this operation has been deployed. (For further details see Michel Chossudovsky, Nuclear War against Iran, Jan 2006 ).
Vice President Dick Cheney has ordered USSTRATCOM to draft a "contingency plan", which "includes a large-scale air assault on Iran employing both conventional and tactical nuclear weapons." (Philip Giraldi, Attack on Iran: Pre-emptive Nuclear War , The American Conservative, 2 August 2005).
USSTRATCOM would have the responsibility for overseeing and coordinating this military deployment as well as launching the military operation. (For details, Michel Chossudovsky, Nuclear War against Iran, Jan 2006 ).
In January 2005 a significant shift in USSTRATCOM's mandate was implemented. USSTRATCOM was identified as "the lead Combatant Command for integration and synchronization of DoD-wide efforts in combating weapons of mass destruction." To implement this mandate, a brand new command unit entitled Joint Functional Component Command Space and Global Strike , or JFCCSGS was created.
Overseen by USSTRATCOM, JFCCSGS would be responsible for the launching of military operations "using nuclear or conventional weapons" in compliance with the Bush administration's new nuclear doctrine. Both categories of weapons would be integrated into a "joint strike operation" under unified Command and Control.
According to Robert S. Norris and Hans M. Kristensen, writing in the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists,
"The Defense Department is upgrading its nuclear strike plans to reflect new presidential guidance and a transition in war planning from the top-heavy Single Integrated Operational Plan of the Cold War to a family of smaller and more flexible strike plans designed to defeat today's adversaries. The new central strategic war plan is known as OPLAN (Operations Plan) 8044.... This revised, detailed plan provides more flexible options to assure allies, and dissuade, deter, and if necessary, defeat adversaries in a wider range of contingencies....
One member of the new family is CONPLAN 8022, a concept plan for the quick use of nuclear, conventional, or information warfare capabilities to destroy--preemptively, if necessary--"time-urgent targets" anywhere in the world. Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld issued an Alert Order in early 2004 that directed the military to put CONPLAN 8022 into effect. As a result, the Bush administration's preemption policy is now operational on long-range bombers, strategic submarines on deterrent patrol, and presumably intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs)."
The operational implementation of the Global Strike would be under CONCEPT PLAN (CONPLAN) 8022, which now consists of "an actual plan that the Navy and the Air Force translate into strike package for their submarines and bombers,' (Japanese Economic Newswire, 30 December 2005, For further details see Michel Chossudovsky, Nuclear War against Iran, op. cit.).
CONPLAN 8022 is 'the overall umbrella plan for sort of the pre-planned strategic scenarios involving nuclear weapons.'
'It's specifically focused on these new types of threats -- Iran, North Korea -- proliferators and potentially terrorists too,' he said. 'There's nothing that says that they can't use CONPLAN 8022 in limited scenarios against Russian and Chinese targets.' (According to Hans Kristensen, of the Nuclear Information Project, quoted in Japanese Economic News Wire, op. cit.)
Nuclear Weapons Deployment Authorization
The planning of the aerial bombings of Iran started in mid-2004, pursuant to the formulation of CONPLAN 8022 in early 2004. In May 2004, National Security Presidential Directive NSPD 35 entitled Nuclear Weapons Deployment Authorization was issued.
The contents of this highly sensitive document remains a carefully guarded State secret. There has been no mention of NSPD 35 by the media nor even in Congressional debates. While its contents remains classified, the presumption is that NSPD 35 pertains to the deployment of tactical nuclear weapons in the Middle East war theater in compliance with CONPLAN 8022.
In this regard, a recent press report published in Yeni Safak (Turkey) suggests that the United States is currently:
"deploying B61-type tactical nuclear weapons in southern Iraq as part of a plan to hit Iran from this area if and when Iran responds to an Israeli attack on its nuclear facilities". (Ibrahim Karagul, "The US is Deploying Nuclear Weapons in Iraq Against Iran", (Yeni Safak,. 20 December 2005, quoted in BBC Monitoring Europe).
This deployment in Iraq appears to be pursuant to NSPD 35
What the Yenbi Safak report suggests is that conventional weapons would be used in the first instance, and if Iran were to retaliate in response to US-Israeli aerial attacks, tactical thermonuclear B61 weapons could then be launched This retaliation using tactical nuclear weapons would be consistent with the guidelines contained in the 2001 Nuclear Posture Review and NSPD 17 (see above).
Israel's Stockpiling of Conventional and Nuclear Weapons
Israel is part of the military alliance and is slated to play a major role in the planned attacks on Iran. (For details see Michel Chossudovsky, Nuclear War against Iran, Jan 2006 ).
Confirmed by several press reports, Israel has taken delivery, starting in September 2004 of some 500 US produced BLU 109 bunker buster bombs (WP, January 6, 2006). The first procurement order for BLU 109 [Bomb Live Unit] dates to September 2004. In April 2005, Washington confirmed that Israel was to take delivery of 100 of the more sophisticated bunker buster bomb GBU-28 produced by Lockheed Martin ( Reuters, April 26, 2005). The GBU-28 is described as "a 5,000-pound laser-guided conventional munitions that uses a 4,400-pound penetrating warhead." It was used in the Iraqi war theater:
The Pentagon [stated] that ... the sale to Israel of 500 BLU-109 warheads, [was] meant to "contribute significantly to U.S. strategic and tactical objectives." .
Mounted on satellite-guided bombs, BLU-109s can be fired from F-15 or F-16 jets, U.S.-made aircraft in Israel's arsenal. This year Israel received the first of a fleet of 102 long-range F-16Is from Washington, its main ally. "Israel very likely manufactures its own bunker busters, but they are not as robust as the 2,000-pound (910 kg) BLUs," Robert Hewson, editor of Jane's Air-Launched Weapons, told Reuters. (Reuters, 21 September 2004)
The report does not confirm whether Israel has stockpiled and deployed the thermonuclear version of the bunker buster bomb. Nor does it indicate whether the Israeli made bunker buster bombs are equipped with nuclear warheads. It is worth noting that this stock piling of bunker buster bombs occurred within a few months after the Release of the NPSD 35¸ Nuclear Weapons Deployment Authorization (May 2004).
Israel possesses 100-200 strategic nuclear warheads . In 2003, Washington and Tel Aviv confirmed that they were collaborating in "the deployment of US-supplied Harpoon cruise missiles armed with nuclear warheads in Israel's fleet of Dolphin-class submarines." (The Observer, 12 October 2003) . In more recent developments, which coincide with the preparations of strikes against Iran, Israel has taken delivery of two new German produced submarines "that could launch nuclear-armed cruise missiles for a "second-strike" deterrent." (Newsweek, 13 February 2006. See also CDI Data Base)
Israel's tactical nuclear weapons capabilities are not known
Israel's participation in the aerial attacks will also act as a political bombshell throughout the Middle East. It would contribute to escalation, with a war zone which could extend initially into Lebanon and Syria. The entire region from the Eastern Mediterranean to Central Asia and Afghanistan's Western frontier would be affected..
The Role of Western Europe
Several Western European countries, officially considered as "non-nuclear states", possess tactical nuclear weapons, supplied to them by Washington.
The US has supplied some 480 B61 thermonuclear bombs to five non-nuclear NATO countries including Belgium, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Turkey, and one nuclear country, the United Kingdom. Casually disregarded by the Vienna based UN Nuclear Watch, the US has actively contributed to the proliferation of nuclear weapons in Western Europe.
As part of this European stockpiling, Turkey, which is a partner of the US-led coalition against Iran along with Israel, possesses some 90 thermonuclear B61 bunker buster bombs at the Incirlik nuclear air base. (National Resources Defense Council, Nuclear Weapons in Europe , February 2005)
Consistent with US nuclear policy, the stockpiling and deployment of B61 in Western Europe are intended for targets in the Middle East. Moreover, in accordance with "NATO strike plans", these thermonuclear B61 bunker buster bombs (stockpiled by the "non-nuclear States") could be launched "against targets in Russia or countries in the Middle East such as Syria and Iran" ( quoted in National Resources Defense Council, Nuclear Weapons in Europe , February 2005)
Moreover, confirmed by (partially) declassified documents (released under the U.S. Freedom of Information Act):
"arrangements were made in the mid-1990s to allow the use of U.S. nuclear forces in Europe outside the area of responsibility of U.S. European Command (EUCOM). As a result of these arrangements, EUCOM now supports CENTCOM nuclear missions in the Middle East, including, potentially, against Iran and Syria"
(quoted in http://www.nukestrat.com/us/afn/nato.htm italics added)
With the exception of the US, no other nuclear power "has nuclear weapons earmarked for delivery by non-nuclear countries." (National Resources Defense Council, op cit)
While these "non-nuclear states" casually accuse Tehran of developing nuclear weapons, without documentary evidence, they themselves have capabilities of delivering nuclear warheads, which are targeted at Iran. To say that this is a clear case of "double standards" by the IAEA and the "international community" is a understatement.
Germany: De Facto Nuclear Power
Among the five "non-nuclear states" "Germany remains the most heavily nuclearized country with three nuclear bases (two of which are fully operational) and may store as many as 150 [B61 bunker buster ] bombs" (Ibid). In accordance with "NATO strike plans" (mentioned above) these tactical nuclear weapons are also targeted at the Middle East.
While Germany is not officially a nuclear power, it produces nuclear warheads for the French Navy. It stockpiles nuclear warheads and it has the capabilities of delivering nuclear weapons. The European Aeronautic Defense and Space Company - EADS , a Franco-German-Spanish joint venture, controlled by Deutsche Aerospace and the powerful Daimler Group is Europe's second largest military producer, supplying .France's M51 nuclear missile.
France Endorses the Preemptive Nuclear Doctrine
In January 2006, French President Jacques Chirac announced a major shift in France's nuclear policy.
Without mentioning Iran, Chirac intimated that France's nukes should be used in the form of "more focused attacks" against countries, which were "considering" the deployment of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD).
He also hinted to the possibility that tactical nuclear weapons could be used in conventional war theaters, very much in line with both US and NATO nuclear doctrine (See Chirac shifts French doctrine for use of nuclear weapons , Nucleonics Week January 26, 2006).
The French president seems to have embraced the US sponsored "War on Terrorism". He presented nuclear weapons as a means to build a safer World and combat terrorism:
Nuclear weapons are not meant to be used against "fanatical terrorists," nevertheless "the leaders of states which used terrorist means against us, as well as those who considered using, in one way or another, weapons of mass destruction, must understand that they are exposing themselves to a firm, appropriate response on our side...".(Ibid)
Although Chirac made no reference to the preemptive use of nuclear weapons, his statement broadly replicates the premises of the Bush administration's 2001 Nuclear Posture Review , which calls for the use of tactical nuclear weapons against ''rogue states" and "terrorist non-state organizations".
Building a Pretext for a Preemptive Nuclear Attack
The pretext for waging war on Iran essentially rests on two fundamental premises, which are part of the Bush administration's National Security doctrine.
1. Iran's alleged possession of "Weapons of Mass Destruction" (WMD), more specifically its nuclear enrichment program.
2. Iran's alleged support to "Islamic terrorists".
These are two interrelated statements which are an integral part of the propaganda and media disinformation campaign.
The "Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)" statement is used to justify the "pre-emptive war" against the "State sponsors of terror", --i.e. countries such as Iran and North Korea which allegedly possess WMD. Iran is identified as a State sponsor of so-called "non-State terrorist organizations". The latter also possess WMDs and potentially constitute a nuclear threat. Terrorist non-state organizations are presented as a "nuclear power".
"The enemies in this [long] war are not traditional conventional military forces but rather dispersed, global terrorist networks that exploit Islam to advance radical political aims. These enemies have the avowed aim of acquiring and using nuclear and biological weapons to murder hundreds of thousands of Americans and others around the world." (2006 Quadrennial Defense Review ),
In contrast, Germany and Israel which produce and possess nuclear warheads are not considered "nuclear powers".
In recent months, the pretext for war, building on this WMD-Islamic terrorist nexus, has been highlighted ad nauseam, on a daily basis by the Western media.
In a testimony to the US Senate Budget Committee, Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice accused Iran and Syria of destabilizing the Middle East and providing support to militant Islamic groups. She described Iran as the "a central banker for terrorism", not withstanding the fact amply documented that Al Qaeda has been supported and financed from its inception in the early 1980s by none other than the CIA. (See Michel Chossudovsky, Who is Osama bin Laden, Global Research 2001).
"It's not just Iran's nuclear program but also their support for terrorism around the world. They are, in effect, the central banker for terrorism," (Statement to the Senate Budget Committee, 16 February 2006)
"Second 9/11": Cheney's "Contingency Plan"
While the "threat" of Iran's alleged WMD is slated for debate the UN Security Council, Vice President Dick Cheney is reported to have instructed USSTRATCOM to draw up a contingency plan "to be employed in response to another 9/11-type terrorist attack on the United States". This "contingency plan" to attack Iran uses the pretext of a "Second 9/11" which has not yet happened, to prepare for a major military operation against Iran.
The contingency plan, which is characterized by a military build up in anticipation of possible aerial strikes against Iran, is in a "state of readiness".
What is diabolical is that the justification to wage war on Iran rests on Iran's involvement in a terrorist attack on America, which has not yet occurred:
The plan includes a large-scale air assault on Iran employing both conventional and tactical nuclear weapons. Within Iran there are more than 450 major strategic targets, including numerous suspected nuclear-weapons-program development sites. Many of the targets are hardened or are deep underground and could not be taken out by conventional weapons, hence the nuclear option. As in the case of Iraq, the response is not conditional on Iran actually being involved in the act of terrorism directed against the United States. Several senior Air Force officers involved in the planning are reportedly appalled at the implications of what they are doing—that Iran is being set up for an unprovoked nuclear attack—but no one is prepared to damage his career by posing any objections. (Philip Giraldi, Attack on Iran: Pre-emptive Nuclear War , The American Conservative, 2 August 2005)
Are we to understand that US military planners are waiting in limbo for a Second 9/11, to launch a military operation directed against Iran, which is currently in a "state of readiness"?
Cheney's proposed "contingency plan" does not focus on preventing a Second 9/11. The Cheney plan is predicated on the presumption that Iran would be behind a Second 9/11 and that punitive bombings would immediately be activated, prior to the conduct of an investigation, much in the same way as the attacks on Afghanistan in October 2001, allegedly in retribution for the role of the Taliban government in support of the 9/11 terrorists. It is worth noting that the bombing and invasion of Afghanistan had been planned well in advance of 9/11. As Michael Keefer points out in an incisive review article:
"At a deeper level, it implies that “9/11-type terrorist attacks” are recognized in Cheney’s office and the Pentagon as appropriate means of legitimizing wars of aggression against any country selected for that treatment by the regime and its corporate propaganda-amplification system.... (Keefer, February 2006 )
Keefer concludes that "an attack on Iran, which would presumably involve the use of significant numbers of extremely ‘dirty’ earth-penetrating nuclear bombs, might well be made to follow a dirty-bomb attack on the United States, which would be represented in the media as having been carried out by Iranian agents" (Keefer, February 2006 )
The Battle for Oil
The Anglo-American oil companies are indelibly behind Cheney's "contingency plan" to wage war on Iran. The latter is geared towards territorial and corporate control over oil and gas reserves as well as pipeline routes.
There is continuity in US Middle East war plans, from the Democrats to the Republicans. The essential features of Neoconservative discourse were already in place under the Clinton administration. US Central Command's (USCENTCOM) theater strategy in the mid-1990s was geared towards securing, from an economic and military standpoint, control over Middle East oil.
"The broad national security interests and objectives expressed in the President's National Security Strategy (NSS) and the Chairman's National Military Strategy (NMS) form the foundation of the United States Central Command's theater strategy. The NSS directs implementation of a strategy of dual containment of the rogue states of Iraq and Iran as long as those states pose a threat to U.S. interests, to other states in the region, and to their own citizens. Dual containment is designed to maintain the balance of power in the region without depending on either Iraq or Iran. USCENTCOM's theater strategy is interest-based and threat-focused. The purpose of U.S. engagement, as espoused in the NSS, is to protect the United States' vital interest in the region - uninterrupted, secure U.S./Allied access to Gulf oil.
(USCENTCOM, http://www.milnet.com/milnet/pentagon/centcom/chap1/stratgic.htm#USPolicy , italics added)
Iran possesses 10 percent of global oil and gas reserves, The US is the first and foremost military and nuclear power in the World, but it possesses less than 3 percent of global oil and gas reserves.
On the other hand, the countries inhabited by Muslims, including the Middle East, North Africa, Central Asia, West and Central Africa, Malaysia, Indonesia and Brunei, possess approximately 80 percent of the World's oil and gas reserves.
The "war on terrorism" and the hate campaign directed against Muslims, which has gained impetus in recent months, bears a direct relationship to the "Battle for Middle East Oil". How best to conquer these vast oil reserves located in countries inhabited by Muslims? Build a political consensus against Muslim countries, describe them as "uncivilized", denigrate their culture and religion, implement ethnic profiling against Muslims in Western countries, foster hatred and racism against the inhabitants of the oil producing countries.
The values of Islam are said to be tied into "Islamic terrorism". Western governments are now accusing Iran of "exporting terrorism to the West" In the words of Prime Minister Tony Blair:
"There is a virus of extremism which comes out of the cocktail of religious fanaticism and political repression in the Middle East which is now being exported to the rest of the world. "We will only secure our future if we are dealing with every single aspect of that problem. Our future security depends on sorting out the stability of that region.""You can never say never in any of these situations." (quoted in the Mirror, 7 February 2006)
Muslims are demonized, casually identified with "Islamic terrorists", who are also described as constituting a nuclear threat. In turn, the terrorists are supported by Iran, an Islamic Republic which threatens the "civilized World" with deadly nuclear weapons (which it does not possess). In contrast, America's humanitarian "nuclear weapons will be accurate, safe and reliable."
The World is at a Critical Cross-roads
It is not Iran which is a threat to global security but the United States of America and Israel.
In recent developments, Western European governments --including the so-called "non-nuclear states" which possess nuclear weapons-- have joined the bandwagon. In chorus, Western Europe and the member states of the Atlantic alliance (NATO) have endorsed the US-led military initiative against Iran.
The Pentagon's planned aerial attacks on Iran involve "scenarios" using both nuclear and conventional weapons. While this does not imply the use of nuclear weapons, the potential danger of a Middle East nuclear holocaust must, nonetheless, be taken seriously. It must become a focal point of the antiwar movement, particularly in the United States, Western Europe, Israel and Turkey.
It should also be understood that China and Russia are (unofficially) allies of Iran, supplying them with advanced military equipment and a sophisticated missile defense system. It is unlikely that China and Russia will take on a passive position if and when the aerial bombardments are carried out.
The new preemptive nuclear doctrine calls for the "integration" of "defensive" and "offensive" operations. Moreover, the important distinction between conventional and nuclear weapons has been blurred..
From a military standpoint, the US and its coalition partners including Israel and Turkey are in "a state of readiness."
Through media disinformation, the objective is to galvanize Western public opinion in support of a US-led war on Iran in retaliation for Iran's defiance of the international community.
War propaganda consists in "fabricating an enemy" while conveying the illusion that the Western World is under attack by Islamic terrorists, who are directly supported by the Tehran government.
"Make the World safer", "prevent the proliferation of dirty nuclear devices by terrorists", "implement punitive actions against Iran to ensure the peace". "Combat nuclear proliferation by rogue states"...
Supported by the Western media, a generalized atmosphere of racism and xenophobia directed against Muslims has unfolded, particularly in Western Europe, which provides a fake legitimacy to the US war agenda. The latter is upheld as a "Just War". The "Just war" theory serves to camouflage the nature of US war plans, while providing a human face to the invaders.
What can be done?
The antiwar movement is in many regards divided and misinformed on the nature of the US military agenda. Several non-governmental organizations have placed the blame on Iran, for not complying with the "reasonable demands" of the "international community". These same organizations, which are committed to World Peace tend to downplay the implications of the proposed US bombing of Iran.
To reverse the tide requires a massive campaign of networking and outreach to inform people across the land, nationally and internationally, in neighborhoods, workplaces, parishes, schools, universities, municipalities, on the dangers of a US sponsored war, which contemplates the use of nuclear weapons. The message should be loud and clear: Iran is not the threat. Even without the use of nukes, the proposed aerial bombardments could result in escalation, ultimately leading us into a broader war in the Middle East.
Debate and discussion must also take place within the Military and Intelligence community, particularly with regard to the use of tactical nuclear weapons, within the corridors of the US Congress, in municipalities and at all levels of government. Ultimately, the legitimacy of the political and military actors in high office must be challenged.
The corporate media also bears a heavy responsibility for the cover-up of US sponsored war crimes. It must also be forcefully challenged for its biased coverage of the Middle East war.
For the past year, Washington has been waging a "diplomatic arm twisting" exercise with a view to enlisting countries into supporting of its military agenda. It is essential that at the diplomatic level, countries in the Middle East, Asia, Africa and Latin America take a firm stance against the US military agenda.
Condoleezza Rice has trekked across the Middle East, "expressing concern over Iran's nuclear program", seeking the unequivocal endorsement of the governments of the region against Tehran. Meanwhile the Bush administration has allocated funds in support of Iranian dissident groups within Iran.
What is needed is to break the conspiracy of silence, expose the media lies and distortions, confront the criminal nature of the US Administration and of those governments which support it, its war agenda as well as its so-called "Homeland Security agenda" which has already defined the contours of a police State.
The World is at the crossroads of the most serious crisis in modern history. The US has embarked on a military adventure, "a long war", which threatens the future of humanity."
Objetivo Irán: Un experto pronostica un holocausto nuclear
En dos informes publicados en el sitio Global Research, el analista geopolítico, Michel Chossudovsky, afirma que EEUU y sus aliados se están preparando para lanzar una guerra nuclear dirigida contra Irán con consecuencias devastadoras.
Según el experto, profesor (emérito) de Economía de la Universidad de Ottawa y director del Centro para la Investigación sobre la Globalización (CRG), un plan operativo para realizar "ataques convencionales y nucleares integrados" contra Irán ha estado en un “estado de disponibilidad” desde junio de 2005.
Todas las garantías de la era de la Guerra Fría, que categorizaban a la bomba nuclear como "un arma de último recurso" han sido dejadas de lado, y las acciones militares “ofensivas” utilizando ojivas nucleares son descritas ahora como actos de “autodefensa”, señala Chossudovsky.
La comunidad internacional ha aprobado la guerra nuclear en nombre de la paz mundial. "Hacer el mundo más seguro" es la justificación para iniciar una operación militar que potencialmente podría resultar en un holocausto nuclear, continúa.
Mientras se puede conceptualizar la pérdida de la vida y la destrucción que resultan de las guerras actuales, incluyendo Iraq y Afganistán, es imposible comprender la devastación que puede resultar de una Tercera Guerra Mundial, usando "nuevas tecnologías" y armas avanzadas, hasta que ocurra y se haga una completa realidad.
Las realidades -continúa el especialista- se vuelven del revés. En una lógica retorcida, la "guerra humanitaria" es aquélla en que se utilizan armas nucleares tácticas, que son "inofensivas para la población civil circundante" de acuerdo con "la opinión científica experta". Esto se defiende como que son los medios para proteger a Israel y al mundo occidental de un ataque nuclear.
Las mini-bombas nucleares estadounidenses, con una capacidad explosiva hasta seis veces mayor que la bomba de Hiroshima, son defendidas por la opinión científica autorizada como bombas humanitarias, mientras que las armas nucleares inexistentes de Irán se etiquetan como una amenaza incontestable para la seguridad mundial.
Para Chossudovsky, cuando los EEUU promocionan una guerra nuclear como un "instrumento de la paz", condonado y aceptado por las instituciones del mundo y las más altas autoridades, incluyendo las Naciones Unidas, no hay vuelta atrás: la sociedad humana se ha precipitado indefectiblemente al sendero de la autodestrucción.
Estamos -afirma el experto- en una encrucijada peligrosa: las reglas y las pautas que gobiernan el uso de las armas nucleares se han "liberalizado" (es decir, "desregulado" en relación con aquéllas impuestas durante la era de Guerra Fría). La nueva doctrina dice que el comando, el control, y la coordinación (CCC) respecto al uso de armas nucleares deben ser "flexibles", permitiendo que comandancias de combate localizadas decidan sí hace uso y cuándo de armas nucleares: las comandancias de combate "desplazadas estarían a cargo del escenario de operaciones nucleares (TNO), con capacidad no sólo de cumplimiento sino también para formular las decisiones de comando en relación con armas nucleares" (doctrina para la doctrina de operaciones nucleares conjunta).
Hemos llegado -añade- a un punto decisivo en nuestra historia. Es completamente esencial que la gente a través de la región, a escala nacional e internacionalmente, comprenda la gravedad de la situación actual y actúe contra sus gobiernos enérgicamente para invertir la marea de la guerra.
Según Chossudovsky, todas las garantías de la era de Guerra Fría, que categorizó la bomba nuclear como "un arma del último recurso", se han descartado. Acciones militares “ofensivas" con uso de armas nucleares se describen como actos de "defensa propia" ahora.
La diferencia entre armas nucleares tácticas y el arsenal de campo de batalla convencional se ha difuminado. La nueva doctrina nuclear de Estados Unidos está basada en "una mezcla de capacidades de ataque". La última, que es aplicable al bombardeo aéreo planeado específicamente para Irán por el Pentágono, prevé el uso de armas nucleares en combinación con armas convencionales.
Como en el caso de la primera bomba atómica, que en palabras de presidente Harry Truman "Se dejó caer sobre una base militar en Hiroshima", las "mini-bombas nucleares" de hoy se anuncian como "seguras para la población civil circundante".
Conocida oficialmente en Washington como "Publicación conjunta 3-12", la nueva doctrina nuclear (doctrina para las operaciones nucleares conjuntas, (DJNO) (marzo2005)) exige "integrar los ataques convencionales y nucleares" bajo un unificado e "integrado" comando de control (C2).
De acuerdo con Chossudovsky, esto describe la dirección de la planificación de guerra y el proceso de toma de decisiones en gran parte, donde los objetivos militares y estratégicos se consiguen, a través de unas mezclas de instrumentos, con poca preocupación por la pérdida de vidas humanas.
Los planes militares se centran en "el empleo de la fuerza más eficiente", -es decir, un concierto óptimo de sistemas de armas diferentes para lograr los objetivos militares marcados.
En este contexto -sigue el experto- las armas nucleares y convencionales se consideran "parte de la caja de herramientas", en la que los comandantes pueden escoger y usar los instrumentos que requieran de conformidad con las "circunstancias en evolución" en el escenario de guerra. (Ninguna de estas armas de la "caja de herramientas" del Pentágono, incluyendo bombas de penetración de búnker convencionales, bombas de racimo, mini-armas nucleares, armas químicas y biológicas se describen como "armas de la destrucción masiva" cuando las usan los Estados Unidos de América y sus aliados).
La nueva doctrina nuclear vuelve los conceptos y las realidades del revés, afirma el experto. No sólo niega los impactos devastadores de las armas nucleares, dice, claramente, que las armas nucleares son "seguras" y su uso en el campo de batalla asegura "garantía de daño mínimo y reducción de la probabilidad de escalada". El asunto de la lluvia radiactiva apenas se reconoce con respecto a las armas nucleares tácticas.
Esta variedad de principios que describe las armas nucleares como "seguras para los civiles" constituye un consenso dentro de los ejércitos y se introduce en los manuales militares, proveyendo los criterios de "luz verde" relevantes a comandantes desplazados en el escenario de guerra. Las acciones "defensivas" y "ofensivas".
La doctrina para las operaciones nucleares conjuntas va un paso más allá nublando la diferencia entre movimientos militares "defensivos" y "ofensivos”:
Mientras, la evaluación de postura nuclear 2001 expone el escenario para el uso preventivo de armas nucleares en el Medio Oriente, específicamente contra Irán (ver también el documento principal de PNAC "Reconstruyendo las defensas de América, estrategia, fuerzas y recursos para el nuevo siglo").
De acuerdo con Chossudovsky, El pretexto para librar una guerra contra Irán, en esencia, se basa en dos premisas fundamentales que forman parte de la doctrina nacional de seguridad de la administración Bush.
1. Presunta posesión por parte de Irán de "armas de destrucción masiva" (ADM), más específicamente su programa de enriquecimiento nuclear.
2. Presunto apoyo de Irán a "terroristas islámicos".
Se trata de dos declaraciones relacionadas entre sí que forman parte integrante de la campaña de propaganda y medios de desinformación, puntualiza.
Para Chossudovsky, el status "armas de destrucción masiva (ADM)" se usa para justificar la "guerra preventiva" contra Estados patrocinadores del terror es decir, países como Irán y Corea del Norte de quienes se alega que supuestamente poseen armas de destrucción masiva. Irán es identificado como un Estado patrocinador de las llamadas "Organizaciones Terroristas no Estatales". Este último también posee armas de destrucción masiva y pueden constituir una amenaza nuclear. Las organizaciones terroristas no estatales se presentan como una "potencia nuclear".
El plan de los bombardeos aéreos a Irán -según el experto- empezó a mediados de 2004, de conformidad con la formulación CONPLAN 8022 a principios de 2004. En mayo de 2004, se hizo pública la directiva presidencial de seguridad nacional NSPD 35 que daba derecho a la autorización de despliegue de armas nucleares.
En todo este escenario -cita Chossudovsky- Israel posee 100-200 cabezas nucleares estratégicas. En 2003, Washington y Tel Aviv confirmaron que estaban colaborando en "el despliegue de misiles de crucero Harpoon armados con cabezas nucleares proporcionados por los EE.UU. en los submarinos de de la flota de Israel clase Delfín" (El observador, 12 octubre de 2003). En los desarrollos más recientes, que coinciden con los preparativos de los ataques a Irán, Israel ha comunicado la adquisición de dos nuevos submarinos nucleares producidos por Alemania "Éstos pueden lanzar misiles de crucero armados con cabezas nucleares como factor disuasivo de un "segundo ataque". (Newsweek, 13 febrero de 2006. Vea también CDI Data Base).
Montado sobre bombas teledirigidas por satélite, las BLU-109 pueden ser disparadas por los reactores F-15 o F-16 de fabricación estadounidense del arsenal de Israel. Este año Israel recibió el primero de los envíos de 102 F-16 de largo alcance de Washington, su aliado principal. "Israel muy probablemente fabrica sus propios penetradores de búnker, pero no son tan robustos como los BLU de 2.000 libras (910 kg)", dijo a Reuters Robert Hewson, editor de Jane's Air-Launched Weapons (Reuters, 21 septiembre de 2004).
Los EEUU por su parte -continúa el experto- han suministrado unas 480 bombas termonucleares B61 a cinco países de la OTAN no nucleares, tales como Bélgica, Alemania, Italia, Países Bajos y Turquía, así como un país nuclear, el Reino Unido. Casualmente ignoradas por la base de Viena UN Nuclear Watch, los EE.UU. han contribuido activamente a la proliferación de armas nucleares en Europa Occidental.
En consonancia con la política nuclear de EEUU, el almacenamiento y el despliegue de las bombas B61 en Europa occidental están destinadas a objetivos en el Oriente Medio. Además, de acuerdo con "planes de ataque de la OTAN", estas bombas termonucleares B61 revienta-búnkeres (almacenadas por los "Estados no nucleares") podrían ponerse en marcha"contra objetivos en Rusia o países en el Medio Oriente como Siria e Irán" (citado en el Consejo Nacional de Defensa de los Recursos, las armas nucleares en Europa, febrero de 2005).
En opinión de Chossudovsky, los ataques aéreos planeados por el Pentágono sobre Irán incluyen "escenarios" tanto con armas nucleares como convencionales. Si bien esto no implica el uso de armas nucleares, el peligro potencial de un holocausto nuclear en Oriente Medio debe, sin embargo, tomarse en serio. Debe convertirse en un punto focal del movimiento contra la guerra, particularmente en los Estados Unidos, Europa occidental, Israel y Turquía.
También se comprendería que China y Rusia, que son (extraoficialmente) aliados de Irán, le proporcionasen equipos militares avanzados y un sofisticado sistema de defensa antimisiles. Es poco probable que China y Rusia asumieran una posición pasiva en caso de que los bombardeos aéreos se llevaran a cabo, añade el experto.
Ernesto Guevara en su discurso ante la Asamblea General de las Naciones Unidas, 1964:
"Los Estados Unidos se han convertido en el el enemigo de la Humanidad".
Nosotros diríamos que los Estados Unidos, no como colectividad de gentes de un país, sino como representación antonomásica de un Suicida Fascismo Mundial: el IV Reich Imperial de los Ricos del Mundo.
¿Como puede ser que las gentes sigan "votando" por ésta clase dominante en el poder?
¿Ser "optimista respecto al presidente de los Estados Unidos"?
¿"Persuadir" a Obama de que no se lance a la guerra contra Iran?
¿O, rabiosamente, pregonar a los cuatro vientos de que --entre otras batallas-- dejémos, radicalmente, de "votar" por éstos Billonarios Internacionales de la Gangstercracia (BIG)?
Posted by Ad Humanitatem at 2:03 PM
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