Saturday, September 12, 2009




George Lukacs



U.S. Government Assassination Plots

On June 26, 1993, the United States carried out a bombing attack on Iraq in retal­iation for an alleged Iraqi plot to assassinate former president George Bush. The attack, said President Clinton, "was essential to send a message to those who engage in state-sponsored terrorism ... and to affirm the expectation of civilized behavior among nations."

Following is a list of prominent foreign individuals whose assassination (or plan­ning for same) the United States has been involved in since the end of the Second World War. The list does not include several assassinations in various parts of the world carried out by anti-Castro Cubans employed by the CIA and headquartered in the United States.

1949 -

Kim Koo, Korean opposition leader

1950s -

CIA/Neo-Nazi hit list of more than 200 political figures in West

Germany to be "put out of the way" in the event of a Soviet invasion 1950s - Zhou Enlai, Prime minister of China, several attempts on his life 1950s, 1962 - Sukarno, President of Indonesia 1951 -

Kim II Sung, Premier of North Korea

1953 -

Mohammed Mossadegh, Prime Minister of Iran

1950s (mid)

Claro M. Recto, Philippines opposition leader

1955 -

Jawaharlal Nehru, Prime Minister of India

1957 -

Gamal Abdul Nasser, President of Egypt

1959/63/69 -

Norodom Sihanouk, leader of Cambodia

1960 -

Brig. Gen. Abdul Karim Kassem, leader of Iraq

1950s-70s -

Jose Figueres, President of Costa Rica, two attempts on his life

1961 -

Francois "Papa Doc" Duvalier, leader of Haiti

1961 -

Patrice Lumumba, Prime Minister of the Congo

1961 -

Gen. Rafael Trujillo, leader of Dominican Republic

1963 -

Ngo Dinh Diem, President of South Vietnam

1960s-90s -

Fidel Castro, President of Cuba, many attempts and plots on his life

1960s -

Raul Castro, high official in government of Cuba

1965 -

Francisco Caamafio, Dominican Republic opposition leader

1965-6 -

Charles de Gaulle, President of France

1967 -

Che Guevara, Cuban leader

1970 -

Gen. Rene Schneider, Commander-in-Chief of Army, Chile

1970 -

Salvador Allende, President of Chile

1970s, 1981 -

General Omar Torrijos, leader of Panama

1972 -

General Manuel Noriega, Chief of Panama Intelligence

1975 -

Mobutu Sese Seko, President of Zaire

1976 -

Michael Manley, Prime Minister of Jamaica

1980-1986 -

 Moammar Qaddafi, leader of Libya, several plots and attempts upon his life

1982 -

Ayatollah Khomeini, leader of Iran


Gen. Ahmed Dlimi, Moroccan Army commander

1983 -

Miguel D'Escoto, Ministro de Asuntos Exteriores de Nicaragua

1984 -

The nine comandantes of the National Directorate of Nicaragua

1985 -

Sheikh Mohammed Hussein Fadlallah, Lebanese Shiite leader

1991 -

Saddam Hussein, leader of Iraq

1998, 2001-2 -

Osama bin Laden, leading Islamic militant 1999 - Slobodan Milosevic, President of Yugoslavia

2002 -

Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, Afghan Islamic leader, warlord, former US ally

2003 -

Saddam Hussein and family members



George Lukacs



Instances of Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad, 1798-1945

(Prepared by Foreign Affairs Division, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1975, revision of 1969 version.)


Undeclared naval war with France: This contest included land actions, such as that in the Dominican Republic, city of Puerto Plata, where marines captured a French privateer under the guns of the forts.


Tripoli: The First Barbary War, including the George Washington and Philadelphia affairs and the Eaton expedition, during which a few marines landed with United States agent William Eaton to raise a force against Tripoli in an effort to free the crew of the Philadelphia. Tripoli declared war but not the United States.


Mexico (Spanish territory): Capt. Z.M. Pike, with a platoon of troops, invaded Spanish territory at the headwaters of the Rio Grande deliberately and on orders from Gen. James Wilkinson. He was made prisoner without resistance at a fort he constructed in present day Colorado, taken to Mexico, later released after seizure of his papers. There was a political purpose, still a mystery.


Gulf of Mexico: American gunboats operated from New Orleans against Spanish and French pri­vateers, such as La Fitte, off the Mississippi Delta, chiefly under Capt. John Shaw and Master Commandant David Porter.


West Florida (Spanish territory): Gov. Claiborne of Louisiana, on orders of the President, occupied with troops territory in dispute east of Mississippi as far as the Pearl River, later the eastern bound­ary of Louisiana. He was authorized to seize as far east as the Perdido River. No armed clash.


Amelia Island and other parts of east Florida, then under Spain: Temporary possession was authorized by President Madison and by Congress, to prevent occupation by any other power; but posses­sion was obtained by Gen. George Matthews in so irregular a manner that his measures were dis­avowed by the President.


Great Britain: War of 1812. Formally declared.


West Florida (Spanish territory): On authority given by Congress, General Wilkinson seized Mobile Bay in April with 600 soldiers. A small Spanish garrison gave way. Thus U.S. advanced into disput­ed territory to the Perdido River, as projected in 1810. No fighting.


Marquesas Islands: Built a fort on island of Nukahiva to protect three prize ships which had been captured from the British.


Spanish Florida: Gen. Andrew Jackson took Pensacola and drove out the British with whom the United States was at war.


Caribbean: Engagements between pirates and American ships or squadrons took place repeatedly especially ashore and offshore about Cuba, Puerto Rico, Santo Domingo, and Yucatan. Three thou­sand pirate attacks on merchantmen were reported between 1815 and 1823

In 1822 Commodore James Biddle employed a squadron of two frigates, four sloops of war, two brigs, four schooners, and two gunboats in the West Indies.


Algiers: The second Barbary War, declared by the opponents but not by the United States. Congress authorized an expedition. A large fleet under Decatur attacked Algiers and obtained indemnities.


Tripoli: After securing an agreement from Algiers, Decatur demonstrated with his squadron at Tunis and Tripoli, where he secured indemnities for offenses during the War of 1812.


Spanish Florida: United States forces destroyed Nicholls Fort, called also Negro Fort, which harbored raiders into United States territory.


Spanish Florida - First Seminole War: The Seminole Indians, whose area was a resort for escaped slaves and border ruffians, were attacked by troops under Generals Jackson and Gaines and pursued into northern Florida. Spanish posts were attacked and occupied, British citizens executed. There was no declaration or congressional authorization but the Executive was sustained.


Amelia Island (Spanish territory off Florida): Under orders of President Monroe, United States forces landed and expelled a group of smugglers, adventurers, and freebooters.


Oregon: The U.S.S. Ontario, dispatched from Washington, landed at the Columbia River and in August took possession. Britain had conceded sovereignty but Russia and Spain asserted claims to the area.


Africa: Naval units raided the slave traffic pursuant to the 1819 act of Congress.

- Cuba: United States naval forces suppressing piracy landed on the north-west coast of Cuba and burned a pirate station.

- Cuba: Brief landings in pursuit of pirates occurred April 8 near Escondido; April 16 near Cayo Blanco; July 11 at Siquapa Bay; July 21 at Cape Cruz; and October 23 at Camrioca.

- Cuba: In October the U.S.S. Porpoise landed bluejackets near Matanzas in pursuit of pirates. This was during the cruise authorized in 1822.


Puerto Rico (Spanish territory): Commodore David Porter with a landing party attacked the town of Fajardo which had sheltered pirates and insulted American naval officers. He landed with 200 men in November and forced an apology.


Cuba: In March cooperating American and British forces landed at Sagua La Grande to capture pirates.


Greece: In October and November landing parties hunted pirates on the islands of Argenteire, Miconi, and Andross.


Falkland Islands: To investigate the capture of three American sealing vessels and to protect American interests.

- Sumatra : February 6 to 9: To punish natives of the town of Quallah Battoo for depredations on American shipping.

- Argentina: October 31 to November 15: A force was sent ashore at Buenos Aires to protect the interests of the United States and other countries during an insurrection.


Peru: December 10, 1835 to January 24, 1836 and August 31 to December 7, 1836: Marines protected American interests in Callao and Lima during an attempted revolution.


Mexico: General Gaines occupied Nacogdoches (Tex.), disputed territory from July to December during the Texan war for independence, under orders to cross the "imaginary boundary line" if an Indian outbreak threatened.


Sumatra - December 24, 1838 to January 4, 1839: To punish natives of the towns of Quallah Battoo and Muckie (Mukki) for depredations on American shipping.

- Fiji Islands - July: To punish natives for attacking American exploring and surveying parties.

- Drummond Island, Kingsmill Group: To avenge the murder of a seaman by the natives.

- Samoa - February 24: To avenge the murder of an American seaman on Upolu Island.

- Mexico: Commodore T.A.C. Jones, in command of a squadron long cruising off California, occupied Monterey, Calif., on October 19, believing war had come. He discovered peace, withdrew, and saluted. A similar incident occurred a week later at San Diego.


China: Sailors and marines from the St. Louis were landed alter a clash between Americans and Chinese at the trading post of Canton.


Africa - November 29 to December 16: Four United States vessels demonstrated and landed various parties (one of 200 marines and sailors) to discourage piracy and the slave trade along the Ivory coast, etc., and to punish attacks by the natives on American seamen and shipping.


Mexico: President Tyler deployed U.S. forces to protect Texas against Mexico, pending Senate approval of a treaty of annexation. (Later rejected.) He defended his action against a Senate resolu­tion of inquiry.


Mexico, the Mexican War: President Folk's occupation of disputed territory precipitated it. War formally declared.


Smyrna: In July a naval force gained release of an American seized by Austrian officials.


Turkey: After a massacre of foreigners (including Americans) at Jaffa in January, a demonstration by the Mediterranean Squadron was ordered along the Turkish (Levant) coast. Apparently no shots fired.


Johanna Island (east of Africa), August: To exact redress for the unlawful imprisonment of the cap­tain of an American whaling brig.


Argentina - February 3 to 12, 1852; September 17, 1852 to April 1853: Marines were landed and maintained in Buenos Aires to protect American interests during a revolution.


Nicaragua - March 11 to 13: To protect American lives and interests during political disturbances.


Japan: The "opening of Japan" and the Perry Expedition.


Ryukyu and Bonin Islands: Commodore Perry on three visits before going to Japan and while waiting for a reply from Japan made a naval demonstration, landing marines twice, and secured a coaling concession from the ruler of Naha on Okinawa. He also demonstrated in the Bonin Islands. All to secure facilities for commerce.


China - April 4 to June 15 or 17: To protect American interests in and near Shanghai during Chinese civil strife.

- Nicaragua - July 9 to 15; San Juan del Norte (Greytown) was destroyed to avenge an insult to the American Minister to Nicaragua.

China - May 19 to 21 (?): To protect American interests in Shanghai. August 3 to 5 to fight pirates near Hong Kong.


Fiji Islands - September 12 to November 4: To seek reparations for depredations on Americans.

- Uruguay - November 25 to 29 or 30: United States and European naval forces landed to protect American interests during an attempted revolution in Montevideo.

- Panama, Republic of New Grenada - September 19 to 22: To protect American interests during an insurrection.


China - October 22 to December 6: To protect American interests at Canton during hostilities between the British and the Chinese; and to avenge an unprovoked assault upon an unarmed boat displaying the United States flag.


Nicaragua - April to May, November to December: To oppose William Walker's attempt to get control of the country. In May Commander C.H. Davis of the United States Navy, with some marines, received Walker's surrender and protected his men from the retaliation of native allies who had been fighting Walker. In November and December of the same year United States vessels Saratoga, Wabash, and Fulton opposed another attempt of William Walker on Nicaragua. Commodore Hiram Paulding's act of landing marines and compelling the removal of Walker to the United States, was tacitly disavowed by Secretary of State Lewis Cass, and Paulding was forced into retirement.


Uruguay - January 2 to 27: Forces from two United States warships landed to protect American property during a revolution in Montevideo.


Fiji Islands - October 6 to 16: To chastise the natives for the murder of two American citizens.


Turkey: Display of naval force along the Levant at the request of the Secretary of State after mas­sacre of Americans at Jaffa and mistreatment elsewhere "to remind the authorities (of Turkey) ... of the power of the United States."


Paraguay: Congress authorized a naval squadron to seek redress for an attack on a naval vessel in the Parana River during 1855. Apologies were made after a large display of force.


Mexico: Two hundred United States soldiers crossed the Rio Grande in pursuit of the Mexican bandit Cortina.


China - July 31 to August 2: For the protection of American interests in Shanghai.


Angola, Portuguese West Africa - March 1: To protect American lives and property at Kissembo when the natives became troublesome.


Colombia, Bay of Panama - September 27 to October 8: To protect American interests during a revo­lution.


Japan - July 16: To redress an insult to the American flag - firing on an American vessel - at Shimonoseki.


Japan - July 14 to August 3, approximately: To protect the United States Minister to Japan when he visited Yedo to negotiate concerning some American claims against Japan, and to make his negotia­tions easier by impressing the Japanese with American power.

- Japan - September 4 to 14 - Straits of Shimonoseki: To compel Japan and the Prince of Nagato in particular to permit the Straits to be used by foreign shipping in accordance with treaties already signed.

- Panama - March 9 and 10: To protect the lives and property of American residents during a revolution.


Mexico: To protect American residents, General Sedgwick and 100 men in November obtained surrender of Matamoras. After 3 days he was ordered by U.S. Government to withdraw. His act was repudiated by the President.

- China - June 20 to July 7: To punish an assault on the American consul at Newchwang; July 14, for consultation with authorities on shore; August 9, at Shanghai, to help extinguish a serious fire in the city.


Nicaragua: Marines occupied Managua and Leon.

-Island of Formosa - June 13: To punish a horde of savages who were supposed to have murdered the crew of a wrecked American vessel.


Japan (Osaka, Hiogo, Nagasaki, Yokohama, and Negata) - Mainly, February 4 to 8, April 4 to May 12, June 12 and 13: To protect American interests during the civil war in Japan over the abolition of the Shogunate and the restoration of the Mikado.


Uruguay - February 7 and 8, 19 to 26: To protect foreign residents and the customhouse during an insurrection at Montevideo.


Colombia - April 7 - at Aspinwall: To protect passengers and treasure in transit during the absence of local police or troops on the occasion of the death of the President of Colombia.


Mexico, June 17 and 18: To destroy the pirate ship Forward, which had been run aground about 40 miles up the Rio Tecapan.


Hawaiian Islands - September 21: To place the American flag at half mast upon the death of Queen Kalama, when the American consul at Honolulu would not assume responsibility for so doing.


Korea - June 10 to 12: To punish natives for depredations on Americans, particularly for murdering the crew of the General Sherman and burning the schooner, and for later firing on other American small boats taking soundings up the Salee River.


Colombia (Bay of Panama) - May 7 to 22, September 23 to October 9: To protect American interests during hostilities over possession of the government of the State of Panama.

- Mexico: United States troops crossed the Mexican border repeatedly in pursuit of cattle and other thieves. There were some reciprocal pursuits by Mexican troops into border territory. The cases were only technically invasions, if that, although Mexico protested constantly. Notable cases were at Remolina in May 1873 and at Las Cuevas in 1875. Washington orders often supported these excur­sions. Agreements between Mexico and the United States, the first in 1882, finally legitimized such raids. They continued intermittently, with minor disputes, until 1896.

- Hawaiian Islands - February 12 to 20: To preserve order and protect American lives and interests during the coronation of a new king.


Mexico - May 18: To police the town of Matamoras temporarily while it was without other govern­ment.


Egypt - July 14 to 18: To protect American interests during warfare between British and Egyptians and looting of the city of Alexandria by Arabs.


Panama (Colon) - January 18 and 19: To guard the valuables in transit over the Panama Railroad, and the safes and vaults of the company during revolutionary activity. In March. April, and May in the cities of Colon and Panama, to re-establish freedom of transit during revolutionary activity.


Korea - June: To protect American residents in Seoul during unsettled political conditions, when an outbreak of the populace was expected.


Haiti - December 20: To persuade the Haitian Government to give up an American steamer which had been seized on the charge of breach of blockade.


Samoa - November 14, 1888, to March 20, 1889: To protect American citizens and the consulate during a native civil war.

- Hawaiian Islands - July 30 and 31: To protect American interests at Honolulu during a revolution.

- Argentina: A naval party landed to protect U.S. consulate and legation in Buenos Aires.

- Haiti: To protect American lives and property on Navassa Island.


Bering Sea - July 2 to October 5: To stop seal poaching.

- Chile - August 28 to 30: To protect the American consulate and the women and children who had taken refuge in it during a revolution in Valparaiso.


Hawaii - January 16 to April 1: Ostensibly to protect American lives and property; actually to promote a provisional government under Sanford B. Dole. This action was disavowed by the United States.


Brazil - January: To protect American commerce and shipping at Rio de Janeiro during a Brazilian civil war. No landing was attempted but there was a display of naval force.


Nicaragua - July 6 to August 7: To protect American interests at Bluefields following a revolution.


China: Marines were stationed at Tientsin and penetrated to Peking for protection purposes dur- j ing the Sino-Japanese War.

- China: Naval vessel beached and used as a fort at Newchwang for protection of American nation­als.


Korea - July 24, 1894 to April 3, 1896: To protect American lives and interests at Seoul during and following the S_ino-Japanese War. A guard of marines was kept at the American legation most of the time until April 1896.


Colombia - March 8 to 9: To protect American interests during an attack on the town of Bocas del Toro by a bandit chieftain.


Nicaragua - May 2 to 4: To protect American interests in Corinto during political unrest.


Nicaragua - February 7 and 8: To protect American lives and property at San Juan del Sur.


Spain: The Spanish-American War. Fully declared.


China - November 5, 1898, to March 15, 1899: To provide a guard for the legation at Peking and the consulate at Tientsin during contest between the Dowager Empress and her son.


Nicaragua: To protect American interests at San Juan del Norte, February 22 to March 5, and at Bluefields a few weeks later in connection with the insurrection of Gen. Juan P. Reyes.

- Samoa - March 13 to May 15: To protect American interests and to take part in a bloody contention over the succession to the throne.


Philippine Islands: To protect American interests following the war with Spain, and to conquer the islands by defeating the Filipinos in their war for independence.


China - May 24 to September 28: To protect foreign lives during the Boxer rising, particularly at Peking. For many years after this experience a permanent legation guard was maintained in Peking,

and was strengthened at times as trouble threatened. It was still there in 1934.

- Colombia (State of Panama) - November 20 to December 4: To protect American property on the Isthmus and to keep transit lines open during serious revolutionary disturbances.

- Colombia - April 16 to 23: To protect American lives and property at Bocas del Toro during a civil war.

- Colombia (State of Panama) - September 17 to November 18: To place armed guards on all trains crossing the Isthmus and to keep the railroad line open.

- Honduras - March 23 to 30 or 31: To protect the American consulate and the steamship wharf at Puerto Cortez during a period of revolutionary activity.


Dominican Republic - March 30 to April 21: To protect American interests in the city of Santo Domingo during a revolutionary outbreak.

-Syria - September 7 to 12: To protect the American consulate in Beirut when a local Moslem uprising was feared.


Abyssinia: Twenty-five marines were sent to Abyssinia to protect the U.S. Consul General while he negotiated a treaty.


Panama: To protect American interests and lives during and following the revolution for indepen­dence from Colombia over the construction of the Isthmian Canal. With brief intermissions, Marines were stationed on the Isthmus from November 4, 1903 to January 21,1914, to guard American interests.


Dominican Republic - January 2 to February 11: To protect American interests in Puerto Plata and Sosua and Santo Domingo City during revolutionary fighting.

- Tangier, Morocco: "We want either Perdicaris alive or Raisula dead." Demonstration by a squadron to force release of a kidnapped American Marine guard landed to protect consul general.

- Panama - November 17 to 24: To protect American lives and property at Ancon at the time of a threatened insurrection.


Korea - January 5, 1904 to November 11, 1905: To guard the American Legation in Seoul. 1904-05 - Korea: Marine guard sent to Seoul for protection during Russo-Japanese War.


Cuba - September 1906 to January 23, 1909: Intervention to restore order, protect foreigners, and establish a stable government after serious revolutionary activity.


Honduras - March 18 to June 8: To protect American interests during a war between Honduras and Nicaragua; troops were stationed for a few days or weeks in Trujillo, Ceiba, Puerto Cortez, San Pedro, Laguna and Choloma.


Nicaragua - February 22: During a civil war, to get information of conditions at Corinto; May 19 to September 4, to protect American interests at Bluefields.


Honduras - January 26 and some weeks thereafter: To protect American lives and interests during a civil war in Honduras.

- China: Approaching stages of the nationalist revolution. An ensign and 10 men in October tried to enter Wuchang to rescue missionaries but retired on being warned away. A small landing force guarded American private property and consulate at Hankow in October. A marine guard was established in November over the cable stations at Shanghai. Landing forces were sent for protection in Nanking, Chinkiang, Taku and elsewhere.


Honduras: Small force landed to prevent seizure by the Government of an American-owned railroad at Puerto Cortez. Forces withdrawn after the United States disapproved of the action.

- Panama: Troops, on request of both political parties, supervised elections outside the Canal Zone. 1912 - Cuba - June 5 to August 5: To protect American interests on the Province of Oriente, and in Habana.

- China - August 24 to 26, on Kentucky Island, and August 26 to 30 at Camp Nicholson: To protect Americans and American interests during revolution activity.

- Turkey - November 18 to December 3: To guard the American legation at Constantinople during a Balkan War.


Nicaragua - August to November 1912: To protect American interests during an attempted revo­lution. A small force serving as a legation guard and as a promoter of peace and governmental stabil­ity, remained until August 5, 1925.


China: The disorders which began with the Kuomintang rebellion in 1912, which were redirected by the invasion of China by Japan and finally ended by war between Japan and the United States in 1941, led to demonstrations and landing parties for the protection of U.S. interests in China continu­ously and at many points from 1912 to 1941. The guard at Peking and along the route to the sea was maintained until 1941. In 1927, the United States had 5,670 troops ashore in China and 44 naval vessels in its waters. In 1933 U.S. had 3,027 armed men ashore. All this protective action was in general terms based on treaties with China ranging from 1858 to 1901.


Mexico - September 5 to 7: A few marines landed at Ciaris Estero to aid in evacuating American citizens and others from the Yaqui Valley, made dangerous for foreigners by civil strife.


Haiti - January 29 to February 9, February 20 to 21, October 19: To protect American nationals in a time of dangerous unrest.

- Dominican Republic - June and July: During a revolutionary movement, United States naval forces by gunfire stopped the bombardment of Puerto Plata, and by threat of force maintained Santo Domingo City as a neutral zone.


Mexico: The undeclared Mexican-American hostilities following the Dolphin affair and Villa's raids included capture of Vera Cruz and later Pershing's expedition into northern Mexico.


Haiti - July 28, 1915 to August 15, 1934: To maintain order during a period of chronic and threatened insurrection.


China: American forces landed to quell a riot taking place on American property in Nanking.


Dominican Republic - May 1916 to September 1924: To maintain order during a period of chronic and threatened insurrection.


China: American troops were landed at Chungking to protect American lives during a political crisis.


World War I. Fully declared.


Cuba: To protect American interests during an insurrection and subsequent unsettled conditions. Most of the United States armed forces left Cuba by August 1919, but two companies remained at Camaguey until February 1922.


Mexico: After withdrawal of the Pershing expedition, our troops entered Mexico in pursuit of bandits at least three times in 1918 and six in 1919. In August 1918 American and Mexican troops fought at Nogales.


Panama: For police duty according to treaty stipulations, at Chiriqui, during election disturbances and subsequent unrest.


Soviet Russia: Marines were landed at and near Vladivostok in June and July to protect the American consulate and other points in the fighting between the Bolsheviki troops and the Czech Army which had traversed Siberia from the western front. A joint proclamation of emergency gov­ernment and neutrality was issued by the American, Japanese, British, French, and Czech comman­ders in July and our party remained until late August. In August the project expanded. Then 7,000 men were landed in Vladivostok and remained until January 1920, as part of an allied occupation force.

In September 1918, 5,000 American troops joined the allied intervention force at Archangel, suffered 500 casualties and remained until June 1919. A handful of marines took part earlier in a British landing on the Murman coast (near Norway) but only incidentally. All these operations were to offset effects of the Bolsheviki revolution in Russia and were partly sup­ported by Czarist or Kerensky elements. No war was declared. Bolsheviki elements participated at times with us but Soviet Russia still claims damages.


Dalmatia: U.S. Forces were landed at Trau at the request of Italian authorities to police order between the Italians and Serbs.

- Turkey: Marines from the U.S.S. Arizona were landed to guard the U.S. Consulate during the Greek occupation of Constantinople.

- Honduras - September 8 to 12: A landing force was sent ashore to maintain order in a neutral zone during an attempted revolution.


China - March 14: A landing force was sent ashore for a few hours to protect lives during a disturbance at Kiukiang.

- Guatemala - April 9 to 27: To protect the American Legation and other American interests, such as the cable station, during a period of fighting between Unionists and the Government of Guatemala.


Russia (Siberia) - February 16, 1920 to November 19, 1922: A marine guard to protect the United States radio station and property on Russian Island, Bay of Vladivostok.

- Panama-Costa Rica: American naval squadrons demonstrated in April on both sides of the Isthmus to prevent war between the two countries over a boundary dispute.

- Turkey - September and October: A landing force was sent ashore with consent of both Greek and Turkish authorities, to protect American lives and property when the Turkish Nationalists entered



China: Between April 1922 and November 1923, Marines were landed five times to protect Americans during periods of unrest.


Honduras - February 28 to March 31, September 10 to 15: To protect American lives and interests during election hostilities.

- China - September: Marines were landed to protect Americans and other foreigners in Shanghai during Chinese factional hostilities.


China - January 15 to August 29: Fighting of Chinese factions accompanied by riots and demonstrations in Shanghai necessitated landing American forces to protect lives and property in the International Settlement.

- Honduras - April 19 to 21: To protect foreigners at La Ceiba during a political upheaval.

- Panama - October 12 to 23: Strikes and rent riots led to the landing of about 600 American troops to keep order and protect American interests.


China - August and September: The Nationalist attack on Hankow necessitated the landing of American naval forces to protect American citizens. A small guard was maintained at the consulate

general even after September 16, when the rest of the forces were withdrawn. Likewise, when Nationalist forces captured Kiukiang, naval forces were landed for the protection of foreigners November 4 to 6.


Nicaragua - May 7 to June 5, 1926; August 27, 1926 to January 3, 1933: The coup d'etat of General Chamorro aroused revolutionary activities leading to the landing of American marines to protect the interests of the United States. United States forces came and went, but seem not to have left the country entirely until January 3, 1933. Their work included activity against the outlaw leader Sandino in 1928.


China - February: Fighting at Shanghai caused American naval forces and marines to be increased there. In March a naval guard was stationed at the American consulate at Nanking after Nationalist forces captured the city. American and British destroyers later used shell fire to protect Americans and other foreigners. "Following this incident additional forces of marines and naval vessels were ordered to China and stationed in the vicinity of Shanghai and Tientsin."


China: American forces were landed to protect American interests during the Japanese occupation of Shanghai.


Cuba: During a revolution against President Gerardo Machado naval forces demonstrated but no landing was made.


China: Marines landed at Foochow to protect the American Consulate.


Newfoundland, Bermuda, St. Lucia, Bahamas, Jamaica, Antigua, Trinidad, and British Guiana: Troops were sent to guard air and naval bases obtained by negotiation with Great Britain. These were sometimes called lend-lease bases.


Greenland: Taken under protection of the United States in April.

- Netherlands (Dutch Guiana): In November the President ordered American troops to occupy Dutch Guiana but by agreement with the Netherlands government in exile, Brazil cooperated to protect alu­minum ore supply from the bauxite mines in Suriname.

- Iceland: Taken under the protection of the United States, with consent of its Government, for strate­gic reasons.

- Germany: Sometime in the spring the President ordered the Navy to patrol ship lanes to Europe. By July U.S. warships were convoying and by September were attacking German submarines. There was no authorization of Congress or declaration of war. In November, the Neutrality Act was partly repealed to protect military aid to Britain, Russia, etc.


Germany, Italy, Japan, etc: World War II. Fully declared.


Asi llegamos a la Segunda Guerra Mundial que los barones del Imperio la terminaron de la consabida manera de lanzar sus dos famosos bombazos nucleares sobre poblaciones urbanas indefensas.

Una excelente manera etica y moral de proclamarse vencedores.

Despues de este cataclismo vendrian muchisimas mas intervenciones, cambiando gobiernos, destrozando las ilusiones de los pueblos. Las naciones Iberoamericanas: El Salvador, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Brasil, Chile...y afuera de este continente, Corea, Vietnam, Laos, Camboya, Indonesia, el Congo...y un largo etc. que nos lleva a preguntarnos:

Donde no han "intervenido"?

Donde no han matado Las Esperanzas Humanas?



George Lukacs

Three Good Reasons To Liquidate The Empire
By Chalmers Johnson

According to the 2008 official Pentagon inventory of our military bases around the world, our empire consists of 865 facilities in more than 40 countries and overseas U.S. territories. We deploy over 190,000 troops in 46 countries and territories. In just one such country, Japan, at the end of March 2008, we still had 99,295 people connected to U.S. military forces living and working there -- 49,364 members of our armed services, 45,753 dependent family members, and 4,178 civilian employees. Some 13,975 of these were crowded into the small island of Okinawa, the largest concentration of foreign troops anywhere in Japan.

These massive concentrations of American military power outside the United States are not needed for our defense. (...?) They are, if anything, a prime contributor to our numerous conflicts with other countries.

They are also unimaginably expensive. According to Anita Dancs, an analyst for the website Foreign Policy in Focus, the United States spends approximately $250 billion each year maintaining its global military presence. The sole purpose of this is to give us hegemony -- that is, control or dominance -- over as many nations on the planet as possible.

We are like the British at the end of World War II: desperately trying to shore up an empire that we never needed (...?) and can no longer afford, using methods that often resemble those of failed empires of the past -- including the Axis powers of World War II and the former Soviet Union. There is an important lesson for us in the British decision, starting in 1945, to liquidate their empire relatively voluntarily, rather than being forced to do so by defeat in war, as were Japan and Germany, or by debilitating colonial conflicts, as were the French and Dutch. We should follow the British example. (Alas, they are currently backsliding and following our example by assisting us in the war in Afghanistan.)

Here are three basic reasons why we must liquidate our empire or else watch it liquidate us.

We Can No Longer Afford Our Postwar Expansionism

Shortly after his election as president, Barack Obama, in a speech announcing several members of his new cabinet, stated as fact that "[w]e have to maintain the strongest military on the planet." A few weeks later, on March 12, 2009, in a speech at the National Defense University in Washington DC, the president again insisted, "Now make no mistake, this nation will maintain our military dominance. We will have the strongest armed forces in the history of the world." And in a commencement address to the cadets of the U.S. Naval Academy on May 22nd, Obama stressed that "[w]e will maintain America's military dominance and keep you the finest fighting force the world has ever seen."

What he failed to note is that the United States no longer has the capability to remain a global hegemon, and to pretend otherwise is to invite disaster.

According to a growing consensus of economists and political scientists around the world, it is impossible for the United States to continue in that role while emerging into full view as a crippled economic power. No such configuration has ever persisted in the history of imperialism. The University of Chicago's Robert Pape, author of the important study Dying to Win: The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism (Random House, 2005), typically writes:
"America is in unprecedented decline. The self-inflicted wounds of the Iraq war, growing government debt, increasingly negative current-account balances and other internal economic weaknesses have cost the United States real power in today's world of rapidly spreading knowledge and technology. If present trends continue, we will look back on the Bush years as the death knell of American hegemony."

There is something absurd, even Kafkaesque, about our military empire. Jay Barr, a bankruptcy attorney, makes this point using an insightful analogy:

"Whether liquidating or reorganizing, a debtor who desires bankruptcy protection must provide a list of expenses, which, if considered reasonable, are offset against income to show that only limited funds are available to repay the bankrupted creditors. Now imagine a person filing for bankruptcy claiming that he could not repay his debts because he had the astronomical expense of maintaining at least 737 facilities overseas that provide exactly zero return on the significant investment required to sustain them… He could not qualify for liquidation without turning over many of his assets for the benefit of creditors, including the valuable foreign real estate on which he placed his bases."

In other words, the United States is not seriously contemplating its own bankruptcy. It is instead ignoring the meaning of its precipitate economic decline and flirting with insolvency.

Nick Turse, author of The Complex: How the Military Invades our Everyday Lives (Metropolitan Books, 2008), calculates that we could clear $2.6 billion if we would sell our base assets at Diego Garcia in the Indian Ocean and earn another $2.2 billion if we did the same with Guantánamo Bay in Cuba. These are only two of our over 800 overblown military enclaves.
Our unwillingness to retrench, no less liquidate, represents a striking historical failure of the imagination. In his first official visit to China since becoming Treasury Secretary, Timothy Geithner assured an audience of students at Beijing University, "Chinese assets [invested in the United States] are very safe." According to press reports, the students responded with loud laughter. Well they might.
In May 2009, the Office of Management and Budget predicted that in 2010 the United States will be burdened with a budget deficit of at least $1.75 trillion. This includes neither a projected $640 billion budget for the Pentagon, nor the costs of waging two remarkably expensive wars.
The sum is so immense that it will take several generations for American citizens to repay the costs of George W. Bush's imperial adventures -- if they ever can or will.

It represents about 13% of our current gross domestic product (that is, the value of everything we produce). It is worth noting that the target demanded of European nations wanting to join the Euro Zone is a deficit no greater than 3% of GDP

Thus far, President Obama has announced measly cuts of only $8.8 billion in wasteful and worthless weapons spending, including his cancellation of the F-22 fighter aircraft. The actual Pentagon budget for next year will, in fact, be larger, not smaller, than the bloated final budget of the Bush era. Far bolder cuts in our military expenditures will obviously be required in the very near future if we intend to maintain any semblance of fiscal integrity.

We Are Going to Lose the War in Afghanistan and It Will Help Bankrupt Us

One of our major strategic blunders in Afghanistan was not to have recognized that both Great Britain and the Soviet Union attempted to pacify(...?) Afghanistan using the same military methods as ours and failed disastrously. We seem to have learned nothing from Afghanistan's modern history -- to the extent that we even know what it is. Between 1849 and 1947, Britain sent almost annual expeditions against the Pashtun tribes and sub-tribes living in what was then called the North-West Frontier Territories -- the area along either side of the artificial border between Afghanistan and Pakistan called the Durand Line. This frontier was created in 1893 by Britain's foreign secretary for India, Sir Mortimer Durand.

Neither Britain nor Pakistan has ever managed to establish effective control over the area. As the eminent historian Louis Dupree put it in his book Afghanistan (Oxford University Press, 2002, p. 425): "Pashtun tribes, almost genetically expert at guerrilla warfare after resisting centuries of all comers and fighting among themselves when no comers were available, plagued attempts to extend the Pax Britannica into their mountain homeland." An estimated 41 million Pashtuns live in an undemarcated area along the Durand Line and profess no loyalties to the central governments of either Pakistan or Afghanistan.

The region known today as the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) of Pakistan is administered directly by Islamabad, which -- just as British imperial officials did -- has divided the territory into seven agencies, each with its own "political agent" who wields much the same powers as his colonial-era predecessor. Then as now, the part of FATA known as Waziristan and the home of Pashtun tribesmen offered the fiercest resistance.

According to Paul Fitzgerald and Elizabeth Gould, experienced Afghan hands and coauthors of Invisible History: Afghanistan's Untold Story (City Lights, 2009, p. 317):

"If Washington's bureaucrats don't remember the history of the region, the Afghans do. The British used air power to bomb these same Pashtun villages after World War I and were condemned for it. When the Soviets used MiGs and the dreaded Mi-24 Hind helicopter gunships to do it during the 1980s, they were called criminals. For America to use its overwhelming firepower in the same reckless and indiscriminate manner defies the world's sense of justice and morality while turning the Afghan people and the Islamic world even further against the United States."

In 1932, in a series of Guernica-like atrocities, the British used poison gas in Waziristan. The disarmament convention of the same year sought a ban against the aerial bombardment of civilians, but Lloyd George, who had been British prime minister during World War I, gloated: "We insisted on reserving the right to bomb niggers" (Fitzgerald and Gould, p. 65). His view prevailed.

The U.S. continues to act similarly, but with the new excuse that our killing of noncombatants is a result of "collateral damage," or human error. Using pilotless drones guided with only minimal accuracy from computers at military bases in the Arizona and Nevada deserts among other places, we have killed hundreds, perhaps thousands, of unarmed bystanders in Pakistan and Afghanistan. The Pakistani and Afghan governments have repeatedly warned that we are alienating precisely the people we claim to be saving for democracy.

Twenty years after the forces of the Red Army withdrew from Afghanistan in disgrace, the last Russian general to command them, Gen. Boris Gromov, issued his own prediction: Disaster, he insisted, will come to the thousands of new forces Obama is sending there, just as it did to the Soviet Union's, which lost some 15,000 soldiers in its own Afghan war. We should recognize that we are wasting time, lives, and resources in an area where we have never understood the political dynamics and continue to make the wrong choices.

We Need to End the Secret Shame of Our Empire of Bases

In March, New York Times op-ed columnist Bob Herbert noted, "Rape and other forms of sexual assault against women is the great shame of the U.S. armed forces, and there is no evidence that this ghastly problem, kept out of sight as much as possible, is diminishing." He continued:

"New data released by the Pentagon showed an almost 9 percent increase in the number of sexual assaults -- 2,923 -- and a 25 percent increase in such assaults reported by women serving in Iraq and Afghanistan [over the past year]. Try to imagine how bizarre it is that women in American uniforms who are enduring all the stresses related to serving in a combat zone have to also worry about defending themselves against rapists wearing the same uniform and lining up in formation right beside them."

The problem is exacerbated by having our troops garrisoned in overseas bases located cheek-by-jowl next to civilian populations and often preying on them like foreign conquerors. For example, sexual violence against women and girls by American GIs has been out of control in Okinawa, Japan's poorest prefecture, ever since it was permanently occupied by our soldiers, Marines, and airmen some 64 years ago.

That island was the scene of the largest anti-American demonstrations since the end of World War II after the 1995 kidnapping, rape, and attempted murder of a 12-year-old schoolgirl by two Marines and a sailor. The problem of rape has been ubiquitous around all of our bases on every continent and has probably contributed as much to our being loathed abroad as the policies of the Bush administration or our economic exploitation of poverty-stricken countries whose raw materials we covet.

The military itself has done next to nothing to protect its own female soldiers or to defend the rights of innocent bystanders forced to live next to our often racially biased and predatory troops. "The military's record of prosecuting rapists is not just lousy, it's atrocious," writes Herbert. In territories occupied by American military forces, the high command and the State Department make strenuous efforts to enact so-called "Status of Forces Agreements" (SOFAs) that will prevent host governments from gaining jurisdiction over our troops who commit crimes overseas. The SOFAs also make it easier for our military to spirit culprits out of a country before they can be apprehended by local authorities.

This issue was well illustrated by the case of an Australian teacher, a long-time resident of Japan, who in April 2002 was raped by a sailor from the aircraft carrier USS Kitty Hawk, then based at the big naval base at Yokosuka. She identified her assailant and reported him to both Japanese and U.S. authorities. Instead of his being arrested and effectively prosecuted, the victim herself was harassed and humiliated by the local Japanese police. Meanwhile, the U.S. discharged the suspect from the Navy but allowed him to escape Japanese law by returning him to the U.S., where he lives today.

In the course of trying to obtain justice, the Australian teacher discovered that almost fifty years earlier, in October 1953, the Japanese and American governments signed a secret "understanding" as part of their SOFA in which Japan agreed to waive its jurisdiction if the crime was not of "national importance to Japan." The U.S. argued strenuously for this codicil because it feared that otherwise it would face the likelihood of some 350 servicemen per year being sent to Japanese jails for sex crimes.

Since that time the U.S. has negotiated similar wording in SOFAs with Canada, Ireland, Italy, and Denmark. According to the Handbook of the Law of Visiting Forces (2001), the Japanese practice has become the norm for SOFAs throughout the world, with predictable results. In Japan, of 3,184 U.S. military personnel who committed crimes between 2001 and 2008, 83% were not prosecuted. In Iraq, we have just signed a SOFA that bears a strong resemblance to the first postwar one we had with Japan: namely, military personnel and military contractors accused of off-duty crimes will remain in U.S. custody while Iraqis investigate. This is, of course, a perfect opportunity to spirit the culprits out of the country before they can be charged.

Within the military itself, the journalist Dahr Jamail, author of Beyond the Green Zone: Dispatches from an Unembedded Journalist in Occupied Iraq (Haymarket Books, 2007), speaks of the "culture of unpunished sexual assaults" and the "shockingly low numbers of courts martial" for rapes and other forms of sexual attacks. Helen Benedict, author of The Lonely Soldier: The Private War of Women Serving in Iraq (Beacon Press, 2009), quotes this figure in a 2009 Pentagon report on military sexual assaults: 90% of the rapes in the military are never reported at all and, when they are, the consequences for the perpetrator are negligible.

It is fair to say that the U.S. military has created a worldwide sexual playground for its personnel and protected them to a large extent from the consequences of their behavior. 


Los USAdores

"En la producción y comercio de armas, destinadas a la guerra y a la destrucción, nadie compite hoy con Estados Unidos. Las dos terceras partes del comercio mundial de armas están en sus manos; son los frutos del Complejo Militar Industrial.
Hoy, esa potencia imperial, con menos del 5 por ciento de la población del mundo, consume el 25 por ciento de la energía fósil, contamina la atmósfera, destruye el medio ambiente, amenaza al mundo con sus armas de exterminio, y, sin embargo, no es capaz de garantizar la salud a casi el 25 por ciento de su población."

(Fidel Castro Ruz. Septiembre 10, 2009
Reflexiones de Fidel, "La conciencia tranquila", Tomado de Cuba Debate)

Blog Archive